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Quick History of Resuscitation

3000 BC Mayan hieroglyphics and Peruvian Incas performed resuscitation by rectal fumigation
896 BC Elisha resus'd a Shumanite's son ".. and he went up and lay upon the child and put his mouth upon his mouth and his eyes upon his eyes and his hands upon his hands and he stretched upon the child and the flesh of the child was warm"
500-1500 AD Medieval, various methods including flagellation, external heating, rolling over a barrel, or strapping across the back of a horse which then runs around a field
1543 Andreas Versalius published "De Humanis corporis fabrica" and blew into a tube to resus an animal: IPPV intratracheal intermittent positive pressure ventilation
1493-1541 Phillipus von Hohenheim wrote about using bellows to resus people
1750-1800 Resus for drowning or poisoning by warming, rubbing, rectal insufflation with tabacco smoke, bleeding, MTM, IPPV .
1774 Royal Human Society London recommended resus of drowned casualties by applying warmth.
1778 Goodwin and Kite deduced that asphyxia causes the heart to stop. Kite suggested electric shock treatment (defib) However, the problems of airway and tongue were not appreciated
1850 MTM replaced with chest pressure except for babies resus'd by midwives 
1850 Intro of anaesthetics, therefore more people stopped breathing while under medical supervision!
1861 Silvester method introduced.  This involved chest pressure and lift on the supine person.  It was instigated because of bad reports about IPPV and damage caused by it.
1874 Closed chest CPR on animals
1891 Closed chest CPR on humans
1900 During surgery: open and closed chest CPR and IPPV performed.
1903 Schafer proposed prone position to allow airway to keep open, used by USA and in both WWs
1906 Adrenaline first used
1904 Heart in VF stopped and restarted using drugs
1932 Holger Neilson technique introduced:  prone, hands under head, expire by pressing on chest, inspire by lifting elbows
1947 1st successful defib
1949 Red Cross checked efficacy of manual methods, Schafer's replaced by Holger-Nielson
1954 Jude and Elam published physiology of resus and declared MTM would work well (with O2 amounts)
1957 Safar introduced ABC, all methods were compared MTM was best.
1958 Conference on anaesthesia, Safar gave paper, Laerdal(doll maker) heard about it
1958 Knickerbocker re-discovery of external chest compressions on dogs also re-tried on humans
1960 First demo of Laerdal's resusci Annie
1960 Chest compression details published in JAMA
1961 US Resuscitators of America trained 10000 in basic life supporters
1962 Resus panel started in Vienna
1970s Guidelines on CPR, demos on TV etc. 

 
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